References & Links

Quoted reference About
Arbelot, A. (Ed.) (1994). Public Health Engineering in Emergency Situation. Médecins Sans Frontières, Paris, France. Water testing in emergencies
ASCE (1991). Slow sand filtration. Logsdon, G.S. (Ed). American Society of Civil Engineers, New York, USA. Biological zone depth
Ali, M.A.; Badruzzaman, A.B.M.; Jalil, M.A.; Hossain, M.D.; Hussainuzzaman, M.M.; Badruzzaman M.; Mohammad, O.I.; Akter, N. (2001) Development of Low-cost Technologies for Removal of Arsenic from Groundwater. University of Engineering and Technology, Bangladesh. Arsenic removal with metal coated sand
Barnes and Mampitiyarachichi, (1983) Water filtration using rice hull ash. Waterlines, vol. 2, pp.21-3. Rice hull ash as filter media
Barrett, J.M. (1989) Improvement of Slow Sand Filtration of Warm Water by Using Coarse Sand. PhD Thesis, University of Colorado, USA. Sand size versus effluent quality
Bellamy, W.D.; Silverman, G.P.; Hendricks, D.W.; Logsdon, G.S. (1985) Removing Giardia cysts with slow sand filtration. American Water Works Association Journal, 77 (2), p.52. Giardia removal
Bellamy, W.D.; Hendricks, D.W.; Longsdon, G.S. (1985) Slow Sand Filtration: Influences of Selected Process Variables. American Water Works Association Journal 77 (12), pp 62-66. Sand height and removal efficiency
Blackwood, A.D.; Gregory, J.B.; Noble, R.T. (2001) Determining the Quantitative Relationship Between Indicator Bacteria and Viral Pathogens in Recreational Water. Institute of Marine Sciences, University of Carolina, USA. Reliability of indicator bacteria to show viral removal
Brassington, R. (1988). Field Hydrogeology. Wiley and Sons, Chichester. Sand analysis using settlement jar
Brock, T.D.; Madigan, M.T. (1991). Biology of Microorganisms. 6th Edition. Prentice Hall, New Jersey. Zoogeal description
Buzunis, B.J. (1995) Intermittently Operated Slow Sand Filtration: A New Water Treatment Process. MSc Thesis, University of Calgary, Canada. In-depth study of the intermittent sand filter
CWC (1995) Evaluation of Crushed Recycled Glass as a Filtration Medium in Slow Rate Sand Filtration. CWC, Seattle, USA. Full copy of report available to order from www.cwc.org Alternative filter media
Ellis, K.V. (1987). ‘Slow Sand Filtration’, WEDCJ. Developing World Water, Vol 2, pp 196-198.
Ferdausi, S.A.; Bolkland, W. (2000). Design improvement for pond sand filter. WEDC Water, Sanitation and Hygiene: Challenges for the Millennium. 26th WEDC Conference, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Village pond filter tests
Fewster, E.; Mol, A.; Wiessent-Brandsma, C. (2004) The Bio-sand Filter. Long term sustainability: userhabits and technical performance evaluated. Presentation given at the 2003 International Symposium on Household Technologies for Safe Water, 16-17 June 2004, Nairobi, Kenya. evaluation of field results and assessment of sustainability
Frankel, R.J. (1979) Operation of the coconut fibre/burnt rice husks filter for supplying drinking water to rural communities in Southeast Asia. AJPH vol.69, no.1, pp.75-6. Alternative filter media
Gerba, C.P.; Hou, K.; Sobsey, M.D. (1988) Microbial removal and inactivation from water by filters containing magnesium peroxide. J. Environ. Sci. Health. 23, pp.41-58. pH affecting viral removal via adsorption
Global Outreach Student’s Association (GOSA) Guatemala 2001) summary available online Evaulation of IOSSF field results
Gresham, B. (1998) The household slow sand filter. Footsteps, No. 35, June 1998, p.11. Reasearch on appropriate household slow sand filter
Grutzmacher, G.; Bottcher, G.; Chorus, I.; Bartel, H. (2002). Removal of microcystins by slow sand filtration. Wiley periodicals. German federal Environmental Agency (Umweltbundesamt, UBA), Berlin, Germany. Abstract available online. removal of microcycstins with SSF
House, S. J.; Reed, R. A., (1997) Energency Water Sources: Guidelines for selection and treatment, Water, Engineering and Development Centre (WEDC), Loughborough. Summary of water quality testing parameters
Hurd, J.; Tse, L.; Paynter, N.; Smith, M. (2001) Nepal Water Project. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA. Summary avaiable online. evaluation of IOSSF field results
Huisman, L; Wood, W.E. (1974). Slow Sand Filtration. WHO, Geneva, Switzerland. General continually operated filter info
IRC (1981). Small Community Water Supplies: Technology of Small Water Supply Systems in Developing Countries. Hofkes, E.H. (Ed.) Technical Paper Series 18. IRC, Rijswijk, The Netherlands. Overview of sand filtration, among other processes
Kaiser, N,; Liang, K.; Maertens, M; Snider, R. (2002) BSF Evaulation Report. Submitted to Samaritan’s Purse, Canada. Evaulation of IOSSF field results
Lee, T-L. (2001) Biosand household water filter project in Nepal. MSc Thesis, Massachusetts Institure of Technology, USA. Evaulation of IOSSF field results
Liang, K. (1998) A report on the Bio-sand water filter project in the Amazon Basin. Agua de Saude, Santarem, Brazil. Evaulation of IOSSF field results
Logan, A.J.; Stevik, T.K.; Siegrist, R.L.; Rønn, R.N. (2001). Transport and rate of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in intermittent sand filters. Wat. Res. Vol. 35, No. 18, pp.4359–4369. Cryptosporidium removal in intermittent filters
Lukacs, H.A. (2002). From Design to Implementation: Innovative Slow Sand Filtration for Use in Developing Countries. MSc Thesis. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA. Good section on wet harrowing.
Lukasik, J.; Cheng, Y-F.; Lu, F.; Tamplin, M.; Farrah, S.R. (1999) Removal of microorganisms from water by columns containing sand coated with ferric and aluminum hydroxides. Wat. Res. Vol. 33, No. 3, pp.769-777. Effect of metal oxide coated sand on removals
Medair (2000). Evaluation/Final Report – Family Bio-sand Filtration Project in Machakos District, Kenya. June 1999 – September 2000. Evaulation of IOSSF field results
Muhammad, N.; Ellis, K.; Parr, J.; Smith, M.D. (1996) Optimization of slow sand filtration. WEDC Reaching the unreached: challenges for the 21st century. 22nd WEDC Conference, New Delhi, India, 1996. Sand size (ES) vs filtrate quality with differing flow rates and constant UC.
Muhammad, N.; Parr, J.; Smith, M.D.; Wheatley, A.D. (1997) Removal of Heavy Metals by Slow Sand Filtration. Proceedings of the 23rd WEDC International Conference on Water Supply and Sanitation, Durban, South Africa, pp 167-170. Adsorption of heavy metals in sand filters
Muhammad, N.; Parr, J.; Smith, M.D.; Wheatley, A.D. (1998) Adsorption of heavy metals in slow sand filters. 24th WEDC Conference: Sanitation and Water for All, Islamabad, Pakistan, pp.346-9. Adsorption of heavy metals in sand filters
Nam, T.K.; Timmons, M.B.; Montemagno, C.D.; Tsukuda, S.M. (2000). Biofilm characteristics as affected by sand size and location in fluidized bed vessels. Aquacultural Engineering 22, pp.213–224. Sand size versus biofilm characteristics for 0.23 and 0.60mm sand
National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI). (1982) Slow sand filtration. Final project report, Nagpur, India. Flow rates in continually operated filters
National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI). (1982) Slow sand filtration. Final project report, Nagpur, India. Flow rates in continually operated filters
Ngai, T.; Walewijk, S. (2003) The Arsenic Biosand Filter (ABF) Project: design of an appropriate household drinking water filter for rural Nepal. Final report. Massachusetts Institute of technology and Standford University, USA (2003) Arsenic removal using the bio-and filter
Palmateer, G.; Manz, D.; Jurkovic, A.; McInnis, R.; Unger, S.; Kwan, K.K. and Dutka, B.J. (1999). Toxicant and Parasite Challenge of Manz Intermittent Slow Sand Filter. Environmental Toxicology, vol. 14, pp. 217- 225. Pathogen data and chemical removal data for intermittent sand filters
Paramasivam, R.; Joshi, N.S.; Dhage, S.S. and Tajne, D.S. (1980). Effect of Intermittent Operation of Slow Sand Filters on Filtered Water Quality. Indian Journal of Environmental Health, Vol.22, No.2, pp.136-150. Intermittent filtration and observed decrease in oxygen levels
Poole, B.R. (2001) Point-of-use water treatment for arsenic removal through iron oxide coated sand: application for the Terai region of Nepal. MSc Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA. Arsenic removal in metal-coated sand
Rao, D.R.J. (1981) Evolving high rate filter and use of crushed stone as filter media. J. Inst. Eng., vol. 61, pp.92-6 ( India). Crushed stone as alternative medium for rapid filters
Rooklidge, S. J.; Ketchum, L. H. (2002) Corrosion control enhancement from a dolomite-amended slow sand filter. Water Research 36, pp.2689-2694. Use of dolomite to increase effluent pH
Rutledge, S.O.; Gagnon, G.A. (2002) Comparing crushed recycled glass to silica sand for dual media filtration. J. Environ. Eng. Sci. Vol. 1. Crushed glass as filter medium
Schulz, C.R.; Okun, D.A. (1984). Surface water Treatment for Communities in Developing Countries. IT, London. General overview of rapid sand filtration
Shaw, R. (Ed) (1999). Running Water: more technical briefs on health, water and sanitation. Intermediate Technology, London, UK, p.103. Technical briefs, including overview of treatment processes
Snider, R. (1998) Clean Water for Londiani – A Final Report on the Biosand Water Filter Project In East Africa, June 20 – Oct 20, 1998. Evaulation of IOSSF field results
Truesdail, S.E.; Lukasik, J.; Farrah, S.R.; Shah, D.O.; Dickinson, R.B. (1998). Analysis of Bacterial Deposition on Metal (Hydr)oxide-Coated Sand Filter Media. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 203, 369–378. Effect of metal oxide coated sand on sand filters
Wheeler, D. ; Bartman, J. ; Loyd, B.J. (1988) The removal of viruses by filtration through slow sand filtration : recent developments in water treatment technology. Graham, N.J.D. (Ed.) John Wiley & Sons, New York, USA. Viral removal in sand filters
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